We've all heard of the concepts of (normal) mineral oils, synthetic oils and semi-synthetic oils, but how many of us really know what these types of oils mean and what are their properties?
Mineral oil is
based on crude oil, its base being molecules built from long chains of carbon sensitive to heat and pressure. Regardless, mineral oil has substances that cannot be filtered from the crude which causes the viscosity to rise to a level very similar to the syrup at very low temperatures. At high temperatures and at high loads, the carbon chains break down and the base of the oil boils, changing the viscosity level and turning into a sludge.
This can also happen at relatively low temperatures of 110 ° C, with 121 ° C already having a lot of mineral oils. In order to improve the properties of the oil, an "additive package", usually synthetic, is added to it which improves its viscosity, cleanability and shear resistance. The proportion of additives in the oil is usually about 18 percent.
oils, unlike the minerals, are not derived from oil, but are produced in the laboratory by chemical reactions between different chemical components. Best synthetic oil has many shielding benefits, regardless of the coldness due to the mineral oils increasing their viscosity and the heat sensitivity due to the thinning of the mineral oils. The synthetic oils are made of molecules differently based on shorter carbon chains than those in the mineral oils and are much more heat and pressure resistant.
The Synthetic Oil
Synthetic oils can withstand temperatures of about 143 ° C throughout the day and still protect the engine. In our hot country it is not uncommon for the oil temperature to go above 110 ° C and even 121 ° C and many times the oil temperature is higher than the coolant temperature we see in the thermometer and therefore the synthetic oils are superior to the mineral oils. Also, their shielding ability is better at any temperature and not just under extreme conditions. Synthetic oils also retain their properties for a longer time than mineral oils due to their increased oxidation resistance, so you can double and sometimes triple the travel distance for the same oil as long as you change the oil filter on time
oils are basically oils that use a blend of synthetic and mineral components, resulting in oils with higher performance properties closer to the synthetic and lower-cost properties (high lubrication, heat-tearing and under-load resistance, higher oxidation resistance, retention) On low viscosity in cold etc.). Like the full synthetic oils, the semi-synthetic oils have almost no filtering properties in mineral oils. Unlike the mineral oils, the semi-synthetic oil gets the viscous properties of the synthetic ingredient so it does not need the amount of harmful polymers added to the mineral oil to maintain its viscosity. The percentage of the synthetic ingredient in semi-synthetic oil ranges from 60 percent in very high quality oils to 20 percent in the least good oils.
Many common and cheap semi-synthetic oils do not meet these levels and do not meet the minimum required of their other components. These oils, despite what is stated on their packaging, can hardly withstand average single-grade viscosity for simple single-grade mineral oil